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Publicación
A developmental study of the bat/ball problem of CRT: How to override the bias and its relation to executive functioning
(The British Psychological Society, 2019-04-16) Corral, Antonio; Carriedo López, M. Nuria; Montoro Martínez, Pedro Raúl; Herrero, Laura
In two experiments, we explored the nature of the bias observed in the bat/ball problem of the cognitive reflection test (Frederick, 2005, J. Econ. Perspect., 19, 25), how to override it, and its relation to executive functioning. Based on the original bat/ball problem, we designed two additional isomorphic items. In Experiment 1, for four age groups, including 7-, 11-, and 15-year-olds and adults, we determined that the bias is related to the System 1 intervention; the performance in this item was not a matter of mathematical ability and it could be facilitated by changing the order in which the problems were presented. In Experiment 2, we determined that for 15-year-olds, good and bad performances in the item were related to executive functioning, particularly response-distractor inhibition, updating information in working memory, and the regulation of attention; however, subtle differences were identified when the problem was performed in a facilitative context compared with a non-facilitative context. The results indicated that cognitive abilities are a necessary but non-sufficient condition to resolve the problem.
Publicación
Executive functioning skills and (low) math achievement in primary and secondary school
(Elsevier, 2023-06-10) Iglesias Sarmiento, Valentín; Carriedo López, M. Nuria; Rodríguez Villagra, Odir Antonio; Pérez, Leire; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3300-1718; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8545-0857; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2477-847X
Schoolchildren with better executive functioning skills achieve better mathematics results. It is less clear how inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory combine to predict mathematics achievement and difficulty throughout primary and secondary school. This study aimed to find the best combination of executive function measures for predicting mathematical achievement in Grades 2, 6, and 10 and to test whether this combination predicts the probability of having mathematical difficulties across school grades even when fluid intelligence and processing speed were included in the models. A total of 426 students—141 2nd graders (72 girls), 143 6th graders (72 girls), and 142 10th graders (79 girls)—were cross-sectionally assessed with 12 executive tasks, one standardized mathematical task, and a standardized test of intelligence. Bayesian regression analyses found various combinations of executive predictors of mathematical achievement for each school grade spanning Grade 2 to measures of cognitive inhibition (negative priming) and cognitive flexibility (verbal fluency); Grade 6 to measures of inhibition: resistance to distractor interference (receptive attention), cognitive flexibility (local–global), and working memory (counting span); and Grade 10 to measures of inhibition: resistance to distractor interference (receptive attention) and prepotent response inhibition (stop signal) and working memory (reading span). Logistic regression showed that the executive models derived from the Bayesian analyses had a similar ability to classify students with mathematical difficulty and their peers with typical achievement to broader cognitive models that included fluid intelligence and processing speed. Measures of processing speed, cognitive flexibility (local–global), and prepotent response inhibition (stop signal) were the main risk factors in Grades 2, 6, and 10, respectively. Cognitive flexibility (verbal fluency) in Grade 2 and fluid intelligence, which was more stable in all three grades, acted as protective factors against mathematical difficulty. These findings inform practical considerations for establishing preventive and intervention proposals.
Publicación
Test embargo curso
(2024) Lovelace, Ada; Gosling, James; Rodríguez Fregenal, Sara; Zurita Ramón, Teresa de Jesús